As a man, aging can bring about different emotions and experiences. For some, it's an exciting time when they get to enjoy the fruits of their labor without any stress. However, for others, it can be a scary prospect filled with exhaustion, depression, and sexual dysfunction. If you're over the age of 40 and have noticed decreased sex drive, irritability, and other unusual symptoms, don't despair. You may be suffering from a common issue that affects nearly 14 million men in the USA: low testosterone.
The good news is that low testosterone (also called low T) can be treated with relative ease. NV Medical Winter Springs provides TRT in Winter Springs, FL, to help men like you enjoy a fulfilling life without the debilitating symptoms of low testosterone. With our team of experts by your side, you can change the trajectory of your life one step at a time.
Like any new activity or medical procedure, it helps to have a strong foundation of knowledge before treatment. Before you make an appointment for testosterone replacement therapy testing, it pays to know a little about testosterone itself.
When people hear the word "testosterone," they often associate it with overly aggressive or macho men. However, testosterone really has little impact on a man's masculinity, at least from a social standpoint. Rather, testosterone plays a much more important role in male development, from puberty to the end of life.
As the primary androgen, testosterone helps men develop typical male characteristics and is vital for the production of sperm. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus in the body control testosterone, and it helps men develop and maintain various functions such as:
As men age, they may experience lower levels of testosterone, also known as low T. This natural decline in testosterone can also be caused by drug abuse, obesity, prescribed medications, or testicle injuries. When testosterone levels decrease, it can affect the body's balance of testosterone and estrogen, leading to an increase in abdominal fat and higher levels of estrogen. This hormonal imbalance can lead to a variety of issues that, when left untreated, can affect your quality of life in several ways.
The most common low testosterone signs in males include the following:
If one or more of those symptoms are happening in your life right now, it could be because your body has a lack of testosterone. The only way to find out for certain is to have your testosterone levels tested at a qualified Sexual Wellness and Holistic Clinic, such as NV Medical Winter Springs. If testing shows that you have low T, the next step in your recovery could be TRT in Winter Springs, FL.
Some men may think to themselves, "I don't have the time or patience to undergo TRT in Winter Springs, FL." While TRT treatments are quick, easy, and require no recovery time, we at NV Medical Winter Springs understand that this type of therapy is not for everyone. Some men choose to rough it through this stage in their life, despite available solutions. While that is certainly an option, if you're considering this route, you should know that more is at risk than low libido and lack of motivation.
As frustrating as those symptoms can be, living with low testosterone often results in more serious issues that risk the health of your vital organs. If you're on the fence about bringing your testosterone levels back within normal range, keep these health risks in mind.
For those who have been diagnosed with pre-diabetes or diabetes, it's possible that low testosterone levels could be a factor. Research has shown that men with low testosterone are more likely to develop diabetes as they age, and those with diabetes are also more likely to have low testosterone. Additionally, men with low T may struggle with insulin resistance. While testosterone replacement therapy won't cure diabetes, studies have suggested that men with healthy testosterone levels tend to have better blood sugar levels and a lower risk of obesity.
If a doctor has informed you that you have high blood pressure, you may be curious about its root cause. Could it be due to aging? Is it hereditary? Or is there another factor at play? Research has shown that men who have low levels of testosterone are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases. When testosterone levels are low, red blood cell production is hindered, which can speed up the accumulation of plaque in your arteries. Over time, this plaque buildup can result in severe issues such as heart attacks and strokes.
Many men face the challenge of excess body fat as they age, which can be discouraging when you're trying to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Despite eating well and exercising regularly, stubborn fat around the waistline can be difficult to get rid of. However, it's important to note that low testosterone levels may be the underlying cause. Studies have shown a correlation between low T and obesity, as testosterone helps regulate metabolism by controlling insulin, glucose, and fat. The good news is that undergoing TRT in combination with proper diet and exercise can lead to weight loss and improved blood glucose and low-density cholesterol levels.
Anemia occurs when the body lacks or has dysfunctional red blood cells, resulting in reduced oxygen supply to organs. Men with low testosterone levels are at a higher risk of anemia since testosterone plays a role in healthy red blood cell production. A study conducted in 2009 revealed that older men with low T have five times more chances of being anemic compared to men with normal testosterone levels. Although testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is not a cure for anemia, it can help in the production of more red blood cells, which may prevent anemia.
To fully appreciate the advantages of testosterone replacement therapy from NV Medical Winter Springs, it's crucial to grasp its mechanism. Testosterone was first synthesized in a laboratory in 1935 and has been prescribed to counteract low testosterone levels in clinical settings ever since. Over the last few decades, it has emerged as one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the US.
TRT works by restoring a healthy testosterone level in men who suffer from low T. Essentially, TRT is similar to insulin for people who have diabetes. The body lacks sufficient production of an essential hormone, and so requires an exogenous source to replace it - testosterone in this case. Although most men begin TRT after the age of 50, more men in their 30s and 40s are having their testosterone levels tested at wellness clinics like NV Medical Winter Springs. If you're experiencing symptoms like ED but think you're too young for testosterone replacement therapy, it's worth having your T levels checked by a doctor.
As the name implies, TRT replaces the testosterone that your body is missing, so it can function as it should. Unlike some TRT clinics, however, our doctors and practitioners take a personalized, comprehensive approach to testosterone replacement therapy.
If you are experiencing symptoms that may indicate low testosterone levels, it is important to undergo a thorough evaluation, including a medical history and physical examination, as well as laboratory studies. After discussing the potential risks and benefits of testosterone therapy with your healthcare provider, a decision can be made about whether to proceed with treatment.
There are several methods for administering testosterone, such as a gel that is applied to the skin, injections, pellets that are placed under the skin, and a new oral pill that has recently become available. Once treatment begins, regular monitoring of your lab results is essential to ensure that the therapy is effective and to make any necessary adjustments based on additional factors. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms and are interested in exploring testosterone therapy, please reach out to NV Medical Winter Springs to schedule a private and confidential consultation with our Board-Certified Urologist.
One of the most common questions we get at NV Medical Winter Springs is, "Why should I take TRT? Are the benefits really worth it?" In short, yes - when you and your doctor agree that TRT is right for you, the benefits give man men in the United States a new lease on life.
That's especially true if you've tried other treatments but haven't had any success. Do you really want to undergo invasive surgery or take addictive medication, only to mask the symptoms that you're experiencing? TRT represents a natural, non-invasive alternative without relying on pills or surgeries. With NV Medical Winter Springs's team of compassionate practitioners and doctors by your side, you can experience the benefits for yourself first-hand.
Some of the biggest advantages of taking TRT include the following:
One of the most popular reasons that men turn to TRT is to enhance their libido and reclaim their sexual health. Research has shown that testosterone levels increase in response to sexual activity and arousal. It's generally accepted that men with higher testosterone levels are more likely to engage in sexual activity. However, as men age, they require more testosterone to maintain healthy erectile function and libido. For older men looking to reignite the fire with their partner, TRT is often a viable solution.
One of the most popular reasons that men turn to TRT is to enhance their libido and reclaim their sexual health. Research has shown that testosterone levels increase in response to sexual activity and arousal. It's generally accepted that men with higher testosterone levels are more likely to engage in sexual activity. However, as men age, they require more testosterAs men age and their testosterone levels decrease, their bone mineral density also decreases. This can increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, which can negatively impact quality of life and athletic performance. However, research has shown that higher doses of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can help increase bone density. In fact, recent clinical trials have discovered that TRT can also increase hip and spinal bone density. Strong bones are essential for supporting organs and muscles, so maintaining bone density is crucial for overall health and well-being.one to maintain healthy erectile function and libido. For older men looking to reignite the fire with their partner, TRT is often a viable solution.
Maintaining a healthy heart is crucial for ensuring that your organs and muscles receive sufficient oxygen to function properly. Testosterone plays a key role in the production of red blood cells via the bone marrow. Insufficient levels of testosterone can result in various health issues for your muscles and organs, including cardiovascular problems that warrant attention.
However, a recent study involving more than 80,000 men revealed that individuals whose testosterone levels were brought into normal ranges were 36% less likely to suffer from a stroke. They were also 24% less likely to experience a heart attack. That's a big deal! These positive findings suggest that TRT in Winter Springs, FL, can effectively promote heart and blood health.
Several studies have indicated that having higher levels of testosterone may lower the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, there is evidence that suggests a strong link between optimized testosterone levels and better memory, recall rate, and improved cognitive abilities.
Having lower levels of testosterone can negatively impact one's quality of life, as it can lead to symptoms such as depression, fatigue, and irritability. However, studies have shown that this may only be true for men with hypogonadism, as men who experience a natural decrease in testosterone over time did not show an increase in depression.
Additionally, males with hypogonadism reported improvements in mood and well-being, as well as reduced fatigue and irritability. Some research has even suggested that this treatment may be an effective form of anti-depressant therapy.
Aging doesn't have to mean a decline in your health and well-being - take control of your life with NV Winter Springs to guide you every step of the way. Our Sexual Wellness and Holistic Clinic in Winter Springs was founded to give men like you - who are suffering from low T - a better quality of life. When you trust our physicians, you can rest easy knowing that you're in good hands. All our TRT options are tailored to your individual needs and goals, ensuring a safe and effective experience without the need for harmful medications or surgeries.
When combined with custom counseling, regular exercise, and a healthy diet, fighting back against low T is easier than ever before. If you're looking to bridge the gap between an unsatisfying past life and a more vibrant future, TRT in Winter Springs, FL, could be the solution for you.
Unlike other TRT clinics in Winter Springs, we know that every man's body and wellness goals are unique. As such, we don't provide a "set it and forget it" experience - we focus on individualized attention and purpose-built plans. If you're a man who is serious about reclaiming your life from the symptoms of low testosterone, you're in the right place.
Patients choose NV Medical Winter Springs because we:
If you're ready to recapture the vigor and vitality of your youth, it's never too late to start. But how will you know when it's time? Like most things in life, your body will let you know. If your body is telling you that change is needed, listen to it - contact our office today and take the next steps toward the life you're dreaming about.
WINTER SPRINGS, Fla. – Two months ago Winter Springs city leaders pushed back against a Seminole County audit – the first of two audits concluding the city misused funds from a penny sales tax.The Winter Springs Mayor Kevin McCann said then his city did nothing wrong and the audit, which found the city shifted millions of dollars awa...
WINTER SPRINGS, Fla. – Two months ago Winter Springs city leaders pushed back against a Seminole County audit – the first of two audits concluding the city misused funds from a penny sales tax.
The Winter Springs Mayor Kevin McCann said then his city did nothing wrong and the audit, which found the city shifted millions of dollars away from infrastructure projects, was politically motivated.
Now a second audit is largely reaffirming many of the findings identified by the first audit.
Winter Springs Community Association President Jesse Phillips, the loudest voice taking issue with the city’s spending and policies since 2019, said the latest audit completed by the state is “vindication.”
“That’s the word we’re using because ultimately true vindication doesn’t come until we fix the issue,” Phillips said. “But there have now been five separate government agencies that have now told the city that our concerns are valid, which is what they’ve been diminishing and downplaying for many years.”
The latest audit is the second one completed by an auditor general this year, both with similar conclusions.
The State Auditor General identified eight issues, including ongoing problems with the city’s half-century old wastewater plant, resulting in sewage spills and hundreds of thousands of dollars in fines as well as concerns about how Winter Springs spent its share of the county’s penny sales tax intended for infrastructure.
The state audit identified that the questionable spending “may erode public trust.”
“You go down the list of the number of concerns of things we’ve been raising for years, we’re fully vetted in vindicated by what the auditor general found,” Phillips said. “At the end of the day the folks running our city have some serious self-reflection to do. Because they’re now faced with the choice of do we effectively admit that everything we’ve been saying has been wrong.”
Winter Springs Mayor Kevin McCann, who took over in 2022 and largely inherited the ongoing issues, said the state audit is likewise vindication, but for the city.
“We see it as it’s clearly stated – no criminality, no malfeasance,” McCann said. “There will be people who want to claim otherwise, but I think what’s in the writing in the response will hold the truth. I’m very happy for the new set of eyes, pointing out some new policy issues that as we continue to grow and more people move in we need to expand some of our policies and tighten up some things and we’re an open book. We’re willing to listen.”
McCann said he generally accepts the findings of the audit.
“I would say generally yes and most of the things have already been corrected and there’s several things, consent orders, that have been acknowledged and taken care of,” McCann said. “Look, the one important thing that this audit really seems to be circling around is the wastewater infrastructure. And it is no surprise that our 50-year-old water treatment plants are in dire need of replacement. That is my single biggest priority, it has been a priority of the city to fix this. I call on the state legislature, instead of slinging mud or trying to make news, please help us.”
Phillips said he wants city commissioners to admit to mistakes.
“I want the city, I want all of those commissioners to publicly acknowledge that their denialism of the past four years was wrong and they’re setting a new course,” Phillips said. “The course is to address the issues.”
McCann said neither residents nor issues have been ignored.
“There’s little in this report that we didn’t already know about that we didn’t already report to the state,” McCann said. “As expressed to the auditing committee in Tallahassee, ask the question and we’ll provide you with all the information. The majority of these things are already public record. That we’ve had spills, yes we have.”
State Senator Jason Brodeur called for the audit in January.
To him, the latest audit report is significant.
“I think so because one of the pieces of events that the city promoted and even said it when they came to testify in Tallahassee was that this was somehow political,” Brodeur said. “And so to have folks who come from out of town who have no skin in a political game, to validate all of the things the residents were complaining about that we found in the county audit, says that this is probably what’s going on.”
Brodeur said if McCann believes the audit is politically-motivated, he should include that sentiment in his response to the state auditor general.
“I would tell him to put that in his 30 days of response that he has and see whether or not the auditor general determines whether they need to do more field work to provide more evidence,” Brodeur said. “The evidence in the report is pretty damning. They are getting fined because they can’t handle their wastewater. They do not have any policies and procedures for spending that 400 other municipalities do. Then produce them.”
Phillips said he’s asked all city leaders to step down. They did not respond to him.
“I got in this position by volunteering for many, many boards and my interest is to serve the community,” McCann said. “The rhetoric calling for us to step down I don’t understand the logic. Of course it’s not going to happen, of course.”
Brodeur said Winter Springs now has 30 days to submit an official response to the state auditor general. If the city offers a corrective action plan that the auditor accepts, the audit is over and closed.
WINTER SPRINGS, Fla. — A Winter Springs High School Social Studies teacher who was arrested for lewd and lascivious battery on a minor faced a judge on Thursday.ON Wednesday, the Seminole County Sheriff’s Office (SCSO) Crimes Against Children Unit arrested Lucas Cridlebaugh, 25, of Sanford on three counts of lewd and lascivious battery on a minor and two counts of lewd and lascivious molestation of a minor.On Monday, the mother of victim, contacted deputies after she learned that Cridlebaugh exchanged sexually expli...
WINTER SPRINGS, Fla. — A Winter Springs High School Social Studies teacher who was arrested for lewd and lascivious battery on a minor faced a judge on Thursday.
ON Wednesday, the Seminole County Sheriff’s Office (SCSO) Crimes Against Children Unit arrested Lucas Cridlebaugh, 25, of Sanford on three counts of lewd and lascivious battery on a minor and two counts of lewd and lascivious molestation of a minor.
On Monday, the mother of victim, contacted deputies after she learned that Cridlebaugh exchanged sexually explicit messages with her daughter, a Winter Springs High School student, over the spring and early summer of 2023 when she was just 15 years old.
During the investigation, detectives learned that Cridlebaugh inappropriately touched the teen five times, with all of the incidents happening in the classroom, except for one that happened in a nearby parking lot.
Detectives questioned Cridlebaugh at his home in Sanford where he admitted to sex acts with the girl and said quote, “I know what I did was wrong.”
Seminole County Public Schools released a statement saying that Cridlebaugh was immediately placed on administrative leave and this incident was reported to the Department of Family and Children Services and Law Enforcement per our operating procedures.
“Any allegations of misconduct by our staff will be taken seriously and handled quickly. We will continue to fully cooperate and assist law enforcement as they continue their investigation. The safety of our students and staff is our highest priority and any type of behavior that jeopardizes that safety will not be tolerated in Seminole County Public Schools,” according to the SCPS release.
At Thursday’s hearing, the judge found probable cause for Cridlebaugh’s arrest and detention on all five counts and ordered him to not have any contact with any child under the age of 18.
Cridlebaugh remains booked into the John E. Polk Correctional Facility on a $75,000 bond.
If he is released, he will have to wear and EMPACT Monitor and cannot return to Winter Springs High School.
WINTER SPRINGS, Fla. — If you live in Winter Springs, get ready to pay more for your water bill.What You Need To Know The city is in talks to building two new water treatment plants, but the city is still in the planning stages, so the cost for the new facilities is unclear.Both water treatment plants are over 50 years old.No one can confirm at this time exactly how much that increase will be, but the cos...
WINTER SPRINGS, Fla. — If you live in Winter Springs, get ready to pay more for your water bill.
The city is in talks to building two new water treatment plants, but the city is still in the planning stages, so the cost for the new facilities is unclear.
Both water treatment plants are over 50 years old.
No one can confirm at this time exactly how much that increase will be, but the cost will be passed on to residents.
The City of Winter Springs told Spectrum News on Tuesday that it conducted a very preliminary estimate of the design, construction and ongoing operations of the two new wastewater treatment plants.
The city commission recently awarded the engineering design contract, and city staff are currently negotiating fees before signing the contract with the selected bidder.
The city will only have a definitive estimate of the actual rate increase once the design is far enough along, and the project is awarded to the contractor.
Commissioner Cade Resnick said Tuesday that the city has talked about four proposals as to where that hike will come from.
“The hike will be made from storm water, wastewater, drinking water and garbage removal, or a combination of them,” said Resnick.
Former mayor Charles Lacey, who lives in Winter Springs and served as mayor for 10 years, said the water treatment plants should have been started years ago.
“A new administration came in in 2018, those plans apparently from what I’m learning now, were just put on the shelf," said Lacey.
In 2018, experts projected a price tag at $35 million.
Commissioner Resnick said the city may have to pay much more in 2023.
“The price tag to build both plants may be as high as $100 million,” said Resnick.
Winter Springs resident Jesse Phillips is very concerned about the rate hike.
“They should have taken care of the problem back in 2018 and 2019, when they had a study outlying a plan for this to be fixed for $30 to $35 million,” said Phillips.
Phillips lives with his wife and four children in Tuscawilla.
No one is sure what the actual cost to residents will be.
“It could be 11 percent, or it could be more. We just don’t know at this time,” said Resnick.
Commissioner Resnick said everyone will be meeting with the city manager next week, to discuss the matter.
WINTER SPRINGS, Fla. - A 13-year-old boy was bitten by an alligator at a creek in Winter Springs on Tuesday, according to 911 audio from the Seminole County Fire Department.The boy said it all happened at Howell Creek Trestle shortly after 6:45 p.m. He told the dispatcher that the gator bit his right hip and mid-thigh area, but he was doing OK."I'm OK, though. I can walk and I can stand. It just stings a little bit, but I'm good," he said. The boy also said it wasn't bleeding "too bad," but ...
WINTER SPRINGS, Fla. - A 13-year-old boy was bitten by an alligator at a creek in Winter Springs on Tuesday, according to 911 audio from the Seminole County Fire Department.
The boy said it all happened at Howell Creek Trestle shortly after 6:45 p.m. He told the dispatcher that the gator bit his right hip and mid-thigh area, but he was doing OK.
"I'm OK, though. I can walk and I can stand. It just stings a little bit, but I'm good," he said. The boy also said it wasn't bleeding "too bad," but his "skin is open pretty good."
When asked where the gator was, the teen said he didn't know. "I got out of the water as fast as I could, and then I just walked all the way to the nearest house," he said, adding that he "ran" away from the creek. The boy wasn't with his mom at the time, who he said was a doctor. She told him to call 911 and officials said paramedics arrived shortly before 7 p.m.
"It doesn't have to be very deep water for an alligator to fully hide," said Gatorland spokesperson Brandon Fisher, "so depending on the size of the alligator, they're easily able to hide in any body of water and stay well hidden."
Fisher added the alligator may simply have been reacting to the commotion in the water. "It's a possibility that maybe this alligator got startled by this kid, being in the creek moving around and that was just a defensive bite, a quick bite."
The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) was made aware of the incident. The boy was taken to a nearby hospital for treatment and a nuisance alligator trapper was dispatched to the area.
"We set traps back here, we're all going to pull out right now and quiet down and hopefully he'll come back and take our bait," said trapper Jerry Flynn.
MORE GATOR NEWS:
The FWC provided the following safety tips when it comes to coming into contact and preventing conflicts with alligators:
If you're concerned about an alligator, contact FWC's Nuisance Alligator Hotline at 866-FWC-GATOR.
Winter Springs is joining the pickleball craze in a big way.The city is currently building what would be the largest complex dedicated to the sport in Seminole County with 14 courts capable of hosting tournaments, leagues, and perhaps even a professional team.“Tampa has the Bucs, St. Pete has the Rays, and Winter Springs could have a professional facility like this that could maybe even bring in a major league pickleball club to use as a home facility,” Deputy Mayor Rob Elliott said at a recent meeting. “That&...
Winter Springs is joining the pickleball craze in a big way.
The city is currently building what would be the largest complex dedicated to the sport in Seminole County with 14 courts capable of hosting tournaments, leagues, and perhaps even a professional team.
“Tampa has the Bucs, St. Pete has the Rays, and Winter Springs could have a professional facility like this that could maybe even bring in a major league pickleball club to use as a home facility,” Deputy Mayor Rob Elliott said at a recent meeting. “That’s how far this has gone.”
The city has been working toward building a pavilion for the sport at Central Winds Park for several years. After construction began in March, city commissioners signaled a change to the project.
Originally, the complex was going to feature 13 standard courts, measuring 64-by-30 feet, and one slightly larger tournament-sized court, measuring 64-by-34 feet. At its May 8 meeting, commissioners moved to make all of the courts tournament-sized under the belief that the layout would generate revenue for the city and draw professional pickleball players and enthusiasts from all over.
“There’s an opportunity for the city to utilize these courts properly in order to bring in tournaments, which would, in turn, bring in money to the city,” said Elliott, a pickleball player who’s been one of the most vocal advocates of the project. “We could have who knows how many leagues and tournaments going on. Based on the research I’ve done, it could be a quite substantial income stream to the city.”
Elliott emphasized that while there’s an opportunity for tournaments, it won’t be the primary focus of the pickleball facility.
“The amount of interest out there is amazing, but I do definitely want to make sure people understand that first and foremost this facility is for the residents of Winter Springs,” he said. “They will take (priority) over anything else going on out there. They are always going to have first dibs and it’s not going to cost them a dime to come there and play the game.”
Construction of the pickleball facility with larger courts is expected to cost the city $2.9 million. It will be paid for using park impact fees, according to city officials.
Pickleball courts have been springing up across Central Florida.
The city of Orlando opened its first courts a year ago at the Dover Shores Neighborhood Center and then another set at East Lake Park in the Lake Nona area. Even the new Orlando Tennis Centre in the Packing District Park, which opened May 30, was redesigned to add pickleball courts.
In January, Clermont in Lake County dedicated six pickleball courts, built at a cost of $160,000 at its Art & Recreation Center.
Orange County will build 10 pickleball courts at Downey Park. County commissioners voted recently to set aside $400,000 for the project in the 47-acre park on Flowers Avenue that also boasts a splash pad, skatepark, sand volleyball pit, and inclusive play area for special needs kids.
Every Tuesday evening and some Sundays, Adam Aziz and fellow tenants at Lake Lawsona Apartments move their cars from the building’s tennis-court-sized parking area, stretch out a net and break out their rackets. They play for hours usually, often drawing spectators to sweaty, spirited doubles matches. But they’re not thwacking a tennis ball. They’re swatting … Continue reading Pickleball’s becoming a big dill in Central Florida
Meanwhile, several cities, like Winter Garden, are converting former tennis courts into pickleball courts due to the game’s rising popularity.
Pickleball, which combines elements of tennis, badminton and ping-pong, began in 1965, but only recently skyrocketed.
The number of people playing pickleball grew by 159% over three years to 8.9 million in 2022, making it the fastest-growing sport in America, according to the Sports & Fitness Industry Association.
There were 11,000 places to play Pickleball at the end of 2022, an increase of around 130 new locations a month, according to USA Pickleball, the sport’s national governing body.
The only reason Winter Springs is building 14 courts at Central Winds Park is because there isn’t space on the property to build more.
“If we had 28 courts, we would fill 28 courts,” Commissioner Cade Resnick said. “I know that for a fact.”